AP Statistics Curriculum 2007

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This is a General Advanced-Placement (AP) Statistics Curriculum E-Book



This is an Internet-based E-Book for advance-placement (AP) statistics educational curriculum. The E-Book is initially developed by the UCLA Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR), however, any statistics instructor, researcher or educator is encouraged to contribute to this effort and improve the content of these learning materials.


Follow the instructions in this page to expand, revise or improve the materials in this E-Book.

Chapter I: Introduction to Statistics

The Nature of Data & Variation

No mater how controlled the environment, the protocol or the design, virtually any repeated measurement, observation, experiment, trial, study or survey is bound to generate data that varies because of intrinsic (internal to the system) or extrinsic (due to the ambient environment) effects. How many natural processes or phenomena in real life can we describe that have an exact mathematical closed-form description and are completely deterministic? How do we model the rest of the processes that are unpredictable and have random characteristics?

Uses and Abuses of Statistics

Statistics is the science of variation, randomness and chance. As such, statistics is different from other sciences, where the processes being studied obey exact deterministic mathematical laws. Statistics provides quantitative inference represented as long-time probability values, confidence or prediction intervals, odds, chances, etc., which may ultimately be subjected to varying interpretations. The phrase Uses and Abuses of Statistics refers to the notion that in some cases statistical results may be used as evidence to seemingly opposite theses. However, most of the time, common principles of logic allow us to disambiguate the obtained statistical inference.

Design of Experiments

Design of experiments is the blueprint for planning a study or experiment, performing the data collection protocol and controlling the study parameters for accuracy and consistency. Data, or information, is typically collected in regard to a specific process or phenomenon being studied to investigate the effects of some controlled variables (independent variables or predictors) on other observed measurements (responses or dependent variables). Both types of variables are associated with specific observational units (living beings, components, objects, materials, etc.)

Statistics with Tools (Calculators and Computers)

All methods for data analysis, understanding or visualization are based on models that often have compact analytical representations (e.g., formulas, symbolic equations, etc.) Model are used to study processes theoretically. Empirical validations of the utility of models is achieved by plugging in data and actually testing the models. This validation step may be done manually, by computing the model prediction or model inference from recorded measurements. This however is possible by hand only for small number of observations (<10). In practice, we write (or use existent) algorithms and computer programs that automate these calculations for better efficiency, accuracy and consistency in applying models to larger datasets.

Chapter II: Describing, Exploring, and Comparing Data

Summarizing data with Frequency Tables

Overview TBD

Pictures of Data

Overview TBD

Measures of Central Tendency

Overview TBD

Measures of Variation

Overview TBD

Measures of Shape

Overview TBD

Graphs & Exploratory Data Analysis

Chapter III: Probability


Overview TBD

Addition & Multiplication Rules

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Probabilities Through Simulations

Overview TBD


Overview TBD

Probability Distributions

Random Variables

Overview TBD

Bernoulli & Binomial Experiments

Overview TBD

Geometric, HyperGeometric & Negative Binomial

Overview TBD

Poisson Distribution

Overview TBD

Chapter IV: Normal Probability Distributions

The Standard Normal Distribution

Overview TBD

Nonstandard Normal Distribution: Finding Probabilities

Overview TBD

Nonstandard Normal Distributions: Finding Scores (critical values)

Overview TBD

Chapter V: Relations Between Distributions

The Central Limit Theorem

Overview TBD

Law of Large Numbers

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Normal Distribution as Approximation to Binomial Distribution

Overview TBD

Poisson Approximation to Binomial Distribution

Overview TBD

Binomial Approximation to HyperGeometric

Overview TBD

Normal Approximation to Poisson

Overview TBD

Chapter VI: Estimates and Sample Sizes

Estimating a Population Mean: Large Samples

Overview TBD

Estimating a Population Mean: Small Samples

Overview TBD

Estimating a Population Proportion

Overview TBD

Estimating a Population Variance

Overview TBD

Chapter VII: Hypothesis Testing

Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing

Overview TBD

Testing a Claim about a Mean: Large Samples

Overview TBD

Testing a Claim about a Mean: Small Samples

Overview TBD

Testing a Claim about a Proportion

Overview TBD

Testing a Claim about a Standard Deviation or Variance

Overview TBD

Chapter VIII: Inferences from Two Samples

Inferences about Two Means: Dependent Samples

Overview TBD

Inferences about Two Means: Independent and Large Samples

Overview TBD

Comparing Two Variances

Overview TBD

Inferences about Two Means: Independent and Small Samples

Overview TBD

Inferences about Two Proportions

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Chapter IX: Correlation and Regression


Overview TBD


Overview TBD

Variation and Prediction Intervals

Overview TBD

Multiple Regression

Overview TBD

Chapter X: Non-Parametric Inference

Differences of Means of Two Paired Samples

Differences of Means of Two Independent Samples

Differences of Medians of Two Paired Samples

Differences of Medians of Two Independent Samples

Differences of Proportions of Two Independent Samples

Differences of Means of Several Independent Samples

Differences of Variances of Two Independent Samples

Chapter XI: Multinomial Experiments and Contingency Tables

Multinomial Experiments: Goodness-of-Fit

Overview TBD

Contingency Tables: Independence and Homogeneity

Overview TBD

Chapter XII: Statistical Process Control

Control Charts for Variation and Mean

Overview TBD

Control Charts for Attributes

Overview TBD

Chapter XIII: Survival/Failure Analysis

Chapter XIV: Multivariate Statistical Analyses

Multivariate Analysis of Variance

Multiple Linear Regression

Logistic Regression

Log-Linear Regression

Multivariate Analysis of Covariance

Chapter XV: Time Series Analysis

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